Buried ion-exchanged glass waveguides featuring low birefringence with a broad range of waveguide widths

Sanna Yliniemi, Brian R. West, Timo Aalto, Pratheepan Madasamy, Nasser Peyghambarian, Seppo Honkanen

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Optical communications networks require integrated photonic components with negligible polarization dependence, which typically means that the waveguides must feature very low birefringence. Recent studies have shown that waveguides with low birefringence can be obtained, e.g., by using silica on Si waveguides and by buried ion-exchanged glass waveguides. However, many integrated photonic circuits consist of waveguides with varying widths. Therefore, low birefringence is consequently required for waveguides having different widths. This is a difficult task for most waveguide fabrication technologies. In this paper we present theoretical and experimental results on waveguide birefringence for buried silver ion-exchanged glass waveguides. We show that the waveguide birefringence is on the order of 106 for waveguide mask opening widths ranging from 2 to 9 μm. The measured values are in good agreement with the values calculated with our modeling software for ion-exchanged glass waveguides. This unique feature of ionexchanged waveguides may be of significant importance in a wide variety of integrated photonic circuits requiring polarization independent operation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number87
Pages (from-to)558-564
Number of pages7
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
StatePublished - 2004
EventIntegrated Optics and Photonic Integrated Circuits - Strasbourg, France
Duration: Apr 27 2004Apr 29 2004


  • Birefringence
  • Integrated optics
  • Ion-exchanged waveguides

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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