Brain evolution in social insects: advocating for the comparative approach

R. Keating Godfrey, Wulfila Gronenberg

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


Sociality is classified as one of the major transitions in the evolution of complexity and much effort has been dedicated to understanding what traits predispose lineages to sociality. Conversely, studies addressing the role of sociality in brain evolution (e.g., the social brain hypothesis) have not focused on particular traits and instead relied largely on measurements of relative brain composition. Hymenoptera range from solitary to advanced social species, providing enticing comparisons for studying sociality and neural trait evolution. Here we argue that measuring the role of sociality in brain evolution will benefit from attending to recent advances in neuroethology and adopting existing phylogenetic comparative methods employed in analysis of non-neural traits. Such analyses should rely on traits we expect to vary at the taxonomic level used in comparative analyses and include phylogenetic structure. We outline the limits of brain size and volumetric interpretation and advocate closer attention to trait stability and plasticity at different levels of organization. We propose neural traits measured at the cellular, circuit, and molecular levels will serve as more robust variables for evolutionary analyses. We include examples of particular traits and specific clades that are well-suited to answer questions about the role of sociality in nervous system evolution.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)13-32
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Comparative Physiology A: Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 12 2019


  • Brain size
  • Division of labor
  • Evolutionary framework
  • Social brain hypothesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Physiology
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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