Case: Although recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) is approved for treatment of open tibial fractures and anterior lumbar interbody fusion, off-label use has been associated with complications such as local inflammation, osteolysis, and dysphagia. This case report describes a patient treated with rhBMP-2 for an atrophic delayed union of a clavicular fracture who subsequently developed a profound motor and sensory brachial plexopathy. Conclusion: Use of rhBMP-2 near peripheral nerves may cause neuropathy. This should be considered prior to its use in surgical sites with peripheral nerves in proximity.
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