Boson operator ordering identities from generalized Stirling and Eulerian numbers

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Ordering identities in the Weyl–Heisenberg algebra generated by single-mode boson operators are investigated. A boson string composed of creation and annihilation operators can be expanded as a linear combination of other such strings, the simplest example being a normal ordering. The case when each string contains only one annihilation operator is already combinatorially nontrivial. Two kinds of expansion are derived: (i) that of a power of a string Ω in lower powers of another string Ω, and (ii) that of a power of Ω in twisted versions of the same power of Ω. The expansion coefficients are shown to be, respectively, generalized Stirling numbers of Hsu and Shiue, and certain generalized Eulerian numbers. Many examples are given. These combinatorial numbers are binomial transforms of each other, and their theory is developed, emphasizing schemes for computing them: summation formulas, Graham–Knuth–Patashnik (GKP) triangular recurrences, terminating hypergeometric series, and closed-form expressions. The results on the first type of expansion subsume a number of previous results on the normal ordering of boson strings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number102678
JournalAdvances in Applied Mathematics
StatePublished - May 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Mathematics


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