Boosted ARTMAP: Modifications to fuzzy ARTMAP motivated by boosting theory

Stephen J. Verzi, Gregory L. Heileman, Michael Georgiopoulos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


In this paper, several modifications to the Fuzzy ARTMAP neural network architecture are proposed for conducting classification in complex, possibly noisy, environments. The goal of these modifications is to improve upon the generalization performance of Fuzzy ART-based neural networks, such as Fuzzy ARTMAP, in these situations. One of the major difficulties of employing Fuzzy ARTMAP on such learning problems involves over-fitting of the training data. Structural risk minimization is a machine-learning framework that addresses the issue of over-fitting by providing a backbone for analysis as well as an impetus for the design of better learning algorithms. The theory of structural risk minimization reveals a trade-off between training error and classifier complexity in reducing generalization error, which will be exploited in the learning algorithms proposed in this paper. Boosted ART extends Fuzzy ART by allowing the spatial extent of each cluster formed to be adjusted independently. Boosted ARTMAP generalizes upon Fuzzy ARTMAP by allowing non-zero training error in an effort to reduce the hypothesis complexity and hence improve overall generalization performance. Although Boosted ARTMAP is strictly speaking not a boosting algorithm, the changes it encompasses were motivated by the goals that one strives to achieve when employing boosting. Boosted ARTMAP is an on-line learner, it does not require excessive parameter tuning to operate, and it reduces precisely to Fuzzy ARTMAP for particular parameter values. Another architecture described in this paper is Structural Boosted ARTMAP, which uses both Boosted ART and Boosted ARTMAP to perform structural risk minimization learning. Structural Boosted ARTMAP will allow comparison of the capabilities of off-line versus on-line learning as well as empirical risk minimization versus structural risk minimization using Fuzzy ARTMAP-based neural network architectures. Both empirical and theoretical results are presented to enhance the understanding of these architectures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)446-468
Number of pages23
JournalNeural Networks
Issue number4
StatePublished - May 2006
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Artificial Intelligence


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