Summary: We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the femoral neck and lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) in adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) compared with controls. Adults with T1D have modestly lower BMD at femoral neck and lumbar spine than adults without diabetes. Introduction: Fracture risk is four to sixfold higher in adults with T1D. Since BMD is one of the major contributors for fracture risk, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate differences in femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD between adults with T1D and controls. Methods: MEDLINE, Ovid, and the Cochrane library and abstracts from various scientific meetings were searched. Studies reporting the femoral neck and/or lumbar spine BMD in adults (age > 20 years) with T1D in comparison with people without diabetes were selected. General linear mixed models were used to assess differences in BMD at femoral neck and lumbar spine between subjects with T1D and controls adjusting for age, sex, and dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) instruments. Results: Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The femoral neck BMD was modestly lower in adults with T1D compared to controls (−0.055 g/cm2; 95% CI: −0.065, −0.045). There were no differences in lumbar spine BMD between adults with T1D and controls (0.0062 g/cm2; 95% CI −0.04, 0.016). However, in a sensitivity analysis, lumbar spine BMD was modestly lower in adults with T1D compared to controls (−0.035 g/cm2; −0.049, −0.02). Studies using Lunar DXA instruments have reported higher lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD compared to studies using Hologic DXA instruments. Conclusion: Femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD were modestly lower in adults with T1D compared to controls. However, this modest reduction in femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD cannot explain much higher observed fracture risk in adults with T1D.
- Bone mineral density
- Type 1 diabetes
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism