Initial results are presented from a collaborative research project focused on optimization of blasting to achieve optimal fragmentation of rock. Although the proposed technology would increase the cost of drilling and blasting, substantial improvements in process plant throughput have been shown to significantly reduce costs downstream. The potential energy savings resulting from improved blast performance can also be substantial, and there are significant environmental and safety benefits as well. The technical goals of the project include development of sensors and data acquisition systems that will allow three-dimensional characterization of the rock mass using geophysical methods and real-time measurements of mineral content using x-ray fluorescence (XRF)spectroscopy. Image-processing techniques are being used to perform post-blast fragmentation analysis. The ultimate goal .of the project is to integrate geophysical and XRF data with drilling and blast data to create an adaptive, online analysis tool to optimize subsequent drilling and blasting.