Biofilms correlate with TH1 inflammation in the sinonasal tissue of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis

Adrianna M. Hekiert, Jennifer M. Kofonow, Laurel Doghramji, David W. Kennedy, Alexander G. Chiu, James N. Palmer, Jeffery G. Leid, Noam A. Cohen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

53 Scopus citations


Objective: Determine the prevalence of bacterial biofilms in surgical chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients and characterize the inflammatory response associated with biofilm CRS. Study Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Tertiary care academic center. Subjects and Methods: Sinonasal mucosa and peripheral blood were collected from 60 CRS patients. Mucosal biofilms were demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy. Leukocyte subpopulations were determined by flow cytometry. Cytokines were identified with a luminex-based assay on the lysate of homogenized tissue or plasma. Results: Of the 60 samples, 17 were determined to be positive for the presence of biofilms. Oral steroid-naive CRS patients with biofilm demonstrated a local TH1 inflammatory response with significantly elevated levels of interferon-γ (INF-γ), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 β, and neutrophils in the sinonasal mucosa. No differences were present at the systemic level. Conclusion: Sinonasal bacterial biofilms correlate to a TH1 skewed local but not systemic inflammatory response in CRS. This difference is abrogated by the use of oral steroids.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)448-453
Number of pages6
JournalOtolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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