Biofeedback and essential hypertension: Current findings and theoretical concerns

G. E. Schwartz, D. Shapiro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


When normotensive and hypertensive subjects are provided with feedback for relative increases or decreases in blood pressure and rewarded for these changes, they can learn to exert some control over their pressure. Biofeedback research on selfregulation of systolic and diastolic pressure, heart rate, and patterns of these functions is reviewed, and a general model of pattern learning is described. Application of these techniques to the control of systolic and diastolic pressure in patients diagnosed with essential hypertension are presented and critically analyzed. Problems of expectancy and motivation, personality and life style, and biologic constraints are emphasized. It is concluded that biofeedback techniques should be viewed as only one part of a combined bahavioral treatment program for hypertensive patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)493-503
Number of pages11
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1973

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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