Biodegradation and seasonal variations in septage characteristics

Maha Mohammad Halalsheh, Hanan Noaimat, Haifa Yazajeen, Joel Cuello, Bob Freitas, Manar Fayyad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Composite samples of septage discharging at the Khirbit As-Samra municipal wastewater treatment plant were analyzed during the period from February to the end of October 2007. Septage showed difference in concentrations of pollutants between summer and winter. The average total chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 6,425 mg/L during summer was 2.16 times greater than that in winter, which is 2,969 mg/L. The total biochemical oxygen demand (5 d) represented 45% of total COD in both winter and summer. Anaerobic biodegradability was 75% after 81 d of digestion at 35°C with a biodegradation rate constant (k) of 0.024 d ∈-∈1, which was lower compared with 0.103 d ∈-∈1 calculated for wastewater with domestic origin in Jordan. Aerobic biodegradability for septage was 48%-COD basis-after 7 d of digestion at 35°C. The lower anaerobic biodegradation rate of septage compared with that of raw wastewater of domestic origin suggested that septage could have a negative effect on the performance of a domestic wastewater treatment plant if septage discharges are not taken into account in the original design of the treatment plant.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)419-426
Number of pages8
JournalEnvironmental Monitoring and Assessment
Issue number1-4
StatePublished - Jan 2011


  • Biodegradability
  • Biodegradation rates
  • Characteristics
  • Seasonal variations
  • Septage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Pollution
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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