Biliary cancer: Gateway to comprehensive molecular profiling

Muhammad Sardar, Rachna T. Shroff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Cholangiocarcinoma is a rare malignancy with a poor prognosis. The majority of tumors present at an advanced stage, and relapse often occurs after surgery conducted with curative intent. In both of these cases, standard treatment is a combination of cisplatin and gemcitabine. The use of folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) in second-line treatment improves survival, but outcomes remain dismal. Studies have shown that cholangiocarcinoma possesses a wide spectrum of genetic aberrations. Clinical trials evaluating targeted therapies in patients with FGFR2 fusions, IDH1 mutations, and BRAF mutations have yielded very promising results, and the agents were generally well tolerated. Several FGFR2 fusion–targeted agents have achieved response rates between 20.7% and 35.5%, with disease stability rates ranging between 76% and 82%. Agents targeting FGFR2 fusions also have produced median progression-free survival (PFS) ranging from 5.7 to 6.9 months and median overall survival (OS) ranging from 12.5 to 21.1 months. Ivosidenib in patients with an IDH1/2 mutation has produced a response rate of 2% and a disease stability rate of 51%, with median PFS of 2.7 months and median OS of 10.8 months. In patients with a BRAF mutation, a combination of dabrafenib and trametinib led to an overall response rate of 51% and disease stability in another 40% of patients. Median PFS and OS were 9 and 14 months, respectively. Patients should be encouraged to participate in clinical trials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)27-34
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Advances in Hematology and Oncology
Volume19
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2021

Keywords

  • BRAF
  • Cholangiocarcinoma
  • FGFR2 fusions
  • IDH1/2 mutation
  • Molecular profiling
  • Targeted therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Oncology

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