Big break for charge symmetry

Gerald A. Miller, Ubirajara Van Kolck

Research output: Contribution to specialist publicationArticle


The experiments detecting the aspects of charge symmetry breaking were reported. The masses of protons and neutrons were calculated using quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and electromagnetism. The difference between the up and down quarks in neutrons and protons resulted in the production of neutral-pions. In regard with the breaking of charge symmetry, the interactions of pions with protons and neutrons and the relation of spin angular momentum of fundamental particles is discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Number of pages2
Specialist publicationPhysics World
StatePublished - Jun 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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