Vascular access failure in hemodialysis patients remains a significant problem. The use of thrombolytic agents and balloon angioplasty instead of or in conjunction with surgical revision, has been helpful in increasing the life span of vascular access in these patients. The application of newer endovascular therapies, such as vascular stents, may further improve the salvage rate of hemodialysis access sites. These stents may be particularly valuable in treating stenoses in large central veins. We present 2 cases in which a balloon-expandable Palmaz® stent was used to treat a central venous stenosis causing signs of vascular access failure.
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