Balanced hemostatic resuscitation for bleeding pediatric trauma patients: A nationwide quantitative analysis of outcomes

Malak Akl, Tanya Anand, Raul Reina, Khaled El-Qawaqzeh, Michael Ditillo, Hamidreza Hosseinpour, Adam Nelson, Omar Obaid, Randall S Friese, Bellal Joseph

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Background: The administration of balanced component therapy has been associated with improvements in outcomes in adult trauma. There is little to no specific data to guide transfusion ratios in children. The aim of our study is to compare outcomes among different transfusion strategies in pediatric trauma patients. Methods: We conducted a (2014–2016) retrospective analysis of the Trauma Quality Improvement Program. We selected all pediatric (age < 18) trauma patients who received at least one unit of packed red blood cells (PRBC) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) within 4 h of admission. Patients were stratified based on their FFP:PRBC transfusion ratio in the first 4 h into: 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1:3+. Primary outcomes were 24-mortality, in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were complications and 24 h PRBC transfusion requirements. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed. Results: A total of 1,233 patients were identified of which 637 received transfusion ratio of 1:1, 365 1:2, 116 1:3, and 115 1:3+. Mean age was 11 ± 6y, 70% were male, ISS was 27 [20–38], and 62% sustained penetrating injuries. Patients in the 1:1 group had the lowest 24 h mortality (14% vs. 18% vs. 22% vs. 24%; p = 0.01) and in-hospital mortality (32% vs. 36% vs. 40% vs. 44%; p = 0.01). No difference was found between the groups in terms of complications (22% vs. 21% vs. 23% vs. 22%; p = 0.96) such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (3.3% vs. 3.6% vs. 0.9% vs. 0%; p = 0.10), and acute kidney injury (3% vs. 2.2% vs. 0.9% vs. 0.9%; p = 0.46). Additionally the 1:1 group had the lowest PRBC transfusion requirements (3[2–7] vs. 5[2–10] vs. 6[3–8] vs. 6[4–10]; p < 0.01). On regression analysis a progressive increase in the mortality adjusted odds ratio was observed as the FFP:PRBC transfusion ratio decreased. Conclusion: FFP:PRBC ratios closest to 1 were associated with increased survival in children. The resuscitation of pediatric patients should target a 1:1 ratio of FFP:PRBC. Further studies are needed for the development of massive transfusion protocols for this age group.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)986-993
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Pediatric Surgery
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2022


  • FFP:PRBC transfusion ratio
  • Hemorrhage
  • Hemostatic resuscitation
  • Pediatrics
  • Trauma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Cite this