Augmented microscopy with near-infrared fluorescence detection

Jeffrey R. Watson, Nikolay Martirosyan, Jesse Skoch, G. Michael Lemole, Rein Anton, Marek Romanowski

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

4 Scopus citations


Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence has become a frequently used intraoperative technique for image-guided surgical interventions. In procedures such as cerebral angiography, surgeons use the optical surgical microscope for the color view of the surgical field, and then switch to an electronic display for the NIR fluorescence images. However, the lack of stereoscopic, real-time, and on-site coregistration adds time and uncertainty to image-guided surgical procedures. To address these limitations, we developed the augmented microscope, whereby the electronically processed NIR fluorescence image is overlaid with the anatomical optical image in real-time within the optical path of the microscope. In vitro, the augmented microscope can detect and display indocyanine green (ICG) concentrations down to 94.5 nM, overlaid with the anatomical color image. We prepared polyacrylamide tissue phantoms with embedded polystyrene beads, yielding scattering properties similar to brain matter. In this model, 194 μM solution of ICG was detectable up to depths of 5 mm. ICG angiography was then performed in anesthetized rats. A dynamic process of ICG distribution in the vascular system overlaid with anatomical color images was observed and recorded. In summary, the augmented microscope demonstrates NIR fluorescence detection with superior real-time coregistration displayed within the ocular of the stereomicroscope. In comparison to other techniques, the augmented microscope retains full stereoscopic vision and optical controls including magnification and focus, camera capture, and multiuser access. Augmented microscopy may find application in surgeries where the use of traditional microscopes can be enhanced by contrast agents and image guided delivery of therapeutics, including oncology, neurosurgery, and ophthalmology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMolecular-Guided Surgery
Subtitle of host publicationMolecules, Devices, and Applications
EditorsBrian W. Pogue, Sylvain Gioux
ISBN (Electronic)9781628414011
StatePublished - 2015
EventMolecular-Guided Surgery: Molecules, Devices, and Applications - San Francisco, United States
Duration: Feb 7 2015Feb 8 2015

Publication series

NameProgress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE
ISSN (Print)1605-7422


OtherMolecular-Guided Surgery: Molecules, Devices, and Applications
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Francisco


  • Augmented reality
  • Image guided surgery
  • Indocyanine green
  • Near-infrared fluorescence
  • Real 3D stereoscopic vision
  • Real-time coregistration
  • Videoangiography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Biomaterials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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