Augmented microscopy: Real-time overlay of bright-field and near-infrared fluorescence images

Jeffrey R. Watson, Christian F. Gainer, Nikolay Martirosyan, Jesse Skoch, G. Michael Lemole, Rein Anton, Marek Romanowski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Intraoperative applications of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent contrast agents can be aided by instrumentation capable of merging the view of surgical field with that of NIR fluorescence. We demonstrate augmented microscopy, an intraoperative imaging technique in which bright-field (real) and electronically processed NIR fluorescence (synthetic) images are merged within the optical path of a stereomicroscope. Under luminance of 100,000 lx, representing typical illumination of the surgical field, the augmented microscope detects 189 nM concentration of indocyanine green and produces a composite of the real and synthetic images within the eyepiece of the microscope at 20 fps. Augmentation described here can be implemented as an add-on module to visualize NIR contrast agents, laser beams, or various types of electronic data within the surgical microscopes commonly used in neurosurgical, cerebrovascular, otolaryngological, and ophthalmic procedures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number106002
JournalJournal of biomedical optics
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2015


  • Augmented imaging
  • angiography
  • indocyanine green
  • intraoperative imaging
  • near-infrared fluorescence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Biomaterials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biomedical Engineering


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