Associations between Distance and Loading Symmetry during Return to Sport Hop Testing

Alexander T. Peebles, Kristen E. Renner, Thomas K. Miller, Joseph T. Moskal, Robin M. Queen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Purpose Hop tests are widely used to quantify recovery from anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) surgery. However, there is evidence that simply measuring hop distance may not be indicative of the quality of movement or representative of potential limitations in hopping mechanics, particularly during landing. The first purpose of the present study was to compare hop distance and loading symmetry between ACLR athletes and healthy uninjured recreational athletes. The second was to determine the association between hop distance and loading symmetry. Methods Twenty-five ACLR patients and 30 healthy controls completed the single hop, triple hop, and crossover hop test on each limb while the loadsol®, a single-sensor force insole, collected impact forces (100 Hz). A limb symmetry index (LSI) was calculated for hop distance, peak impact force, loading rate, and impulse from the final landing of each trial. LSI values were compared between groups using Mann-Whitney U tests, and distance and loading LSI values were compared using Spearman rank correlations. Results ACLR patients had reduced symmetry in hop distance and loading relative to healthy controls for every hop test and outcome measure (P < 0.05), except peak impact force on the single hop. Hop distance symmetry was significantly related to each loading symmetry measure on the crossover hop test (P < 0.01) and to peak impact force and impulse symmetry on the single hop test (P < 0.05) in each group. Conclusion This study demonstrates that ACLR patients both hop further and generate larger forces when hopping on their nonsurgical limb relative to their surgical limb. In addition, hop distance and loading symmetry provide clinicians and researchers with different information and therefore should be considered together when making return to sport decisions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)624-629
Number of pages6
JournalMedicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2019
Externally publishedYes



ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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