Importance: Whole-blood (WB) resuscitation has gained renewed interest among civilian trauma centers. However, there remains insufficient evidence that WB as an adjunct to component therapy-based massive transfusion protocol (WB-MTP) is associated with a survival advantage over MTP alone in adult civilian trauma patients presenting with severe hemorrhage. Objective: To assess whether WB-MTP compared with MTP alone is associated with improved survival at 24 hours and 30 days among adult trauma patients presenting with severe hemorrhage. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study using the American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program databank from January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2018, included adult trauma patients with a systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg and a shock index greater than 1 who received at least 4 units of red blood cells within the first hour of emergency department (ED) arrival at level I and level II US and Canadian adult civilian trauma centers. Patients with burns, death within 1 hour of ED arrival, and interfacility transfers were excluded. Data were analyzed from February 2022 to September 2022. Exposures: Resuscitation with WB-MTP compared with MTP alone within 24 hours of ED presentation. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes were survival at 24 hours and 30 days. Secondary outcomes selected a priori included major complications, hospital length of stay, and intensive care unit length of stay. Results: A total of 2785 patients met inclusion criteria: 432 (15.5%) in the WB-MTP group (335 male [78%]; median age, 38 years [IQR, 27-57 years]) and 2353 (84.5%) in the MTP-only group (1822 male [77%]; median age, 38 years [IQR, 27-56 years]). Both groups included severely injured patients (median injury severity score, 28 [IQR, 17-34]; median difference, 1.29 [95% CI, -0.05 to 2.64]). A survival curve demonstrated separation within 5 hours of ED presentation. WB-MTP was associated with improved survival at 24 hours, demonstrating a 37% lower risk of mortality (hazard ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.41-0.96; P =.03). Similarly, the survival benefit associated with WB-MTP remained consistent at 30 days (HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.31-0.93; P =.02). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, receipt of WB-MTP was associated with improved survival in trauma patients presenting with severe hemorrhage, with a survival benefit found early after transfusion. The findings from this study are clinically important as this is an essential first step in prioritizing the selection of WB-MTP for trauma patients presenting with severe hemorrhage..
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