Association of Prescription Co-payment With Adherence to Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist and Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitor Therapies in Patients With Heart Failure and Diabetes

Utibe R. Essien, Balvindar Singh, Gretchen Swabe, Amber E. Johnson, Lauren A. Eberly, Rishi K. Wadhera, Khadijah Breathett, Muthiah Vaduganathan, Jared W. Magnani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations

Abstract

Importance: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and heart failure (HF) prevalence are rising in the US. Although glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP1-RA) and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) improve outcomes for these conditions, high out-of-pocket costs may be associated with reduced medication adherence. Objective: To compare 1-year adherence to GLP1-RA and SGLT2i therapies by prescription co-payment level in individuals with T2D and/or HF. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study used deidentified data from Optum Insight's Clinformatics Data Mart Database of enrollees with commercial and Medicare health insurance plans. Individuals aged 18 years or older with T2D and/or HF who had a prescription claim for a GLP1-RA or SLGT2i from January 1, 2014, to September 30, 2020, were included. Exposures: Prescription co-payment, categorized as low (<$10), medium ($10 to<$50), and high (≥$50). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was medication adherence, defined as a proportion of days covered (PDC) of 80% or greater at 1 year. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between co-payment and adherence, adjusting for patient demographics, medical comorbidities, and socioeconomic factors. Results: A total of 94610 individuals (mean [SD] age, 61.8 [11.4] years; 51226 [54.1%] male) were prescribed GLP1-RA or SGLT2i therapy. Overall, 39149 individuals had a claim for a GLP1-RA, of whom 25557 (65.3%) had a PDC of 80% or greater at 1 year. In fully adjusted models, individuals with a medium (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.62; 95% CI, 0.58-0.67) or high (AOR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.44-0.51) co-payment were less likely to have a PDC of 80% or greater with a GLP1-RA compared with those with a low co-payment. Overall, 51072 individuals had a claim for an SGLT2i, of whom 37339 (73.1%) had a PDC of 80% or greater at 1 year. Individuals with a medium (AOR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.63-0.72) or high (AOR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.63-0.72) co-payment were less likely to have a PDC of 80% or greater with an SGLT2i compared with those with a low co-payment. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of individuals with T2D and/or HF, 1-year adherence to GLP1-RA or SGLT2i therapies was highest among individuals with a low co-payment. Improving adherence to guideline-based therapies may require interventions that reduce out-of-pocket prescription costs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E2316290
JournalJAMA Network Open
Volume6
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2023
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine

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