Objectives: The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in children is increasing, attributed in part to increased utilization of central venous catheters (CVCs). Children with protein losing disorders (PLDs) and low serum albumin may have an increased incidence of thrombosis. We sought to determine the prevalence of PLDs and hypoalbuminemia at the time of diagnosis of VTE in pediatric patients and its relationship to central venous catheters. Methods: We performed a single institution retrospective study of 65 consecutive hospitalized pediatric patients with an acute VTE. Data collected included clinical diagnoses, type of thrombosis, presence or absence of a CVC, and serum albumin level, if available. Results: Of 65 patients with acute VTE, 51 % (33/65) had catheter-related thrombosis (CRT), including 71 % (19/27) of patients <12 years of age and 37 % (14/38) of patients aged 12 to 23 (P = 0.008). Eleven VTEs occurred in patients with a diagnosis of a PLD; of these, ten (91 %) were CRT and one (9 %) was a non-CRT (P = 0.003). Serum albumin levels obtained within four days of diagnosis of VTE were available for 38 patients. An albumin level below the lower limit of the age-adjusted normal reference range was documented in 27/38 (71 %) patients with VTE compared to 1011/3028 (33 %) of all pediatric patients admitted to the hospital during a two-year period (P < 0.0001). Albumin levels were low in 19/22 (86 %) patients with CRT compared with 8/16 (50 %) patients with non-CRT (P = 0.019). Conclusion: Low serum albumin levels are highly prevalent among pediatric patients with VTE, especially in those patients with CRT.
- Catheter-related thrombosis
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