Association of Gender and Race With Allocation of Advanced Heart Failure Therapies

Khadijah Breathett, Erika Yee, Natalie Pool, Megan Hebdon, Janice D Crist, Ryan H. Yee, Shannon M. Knapp, Sade Solola, Luis Luy, Kathryn Herrera-Theut, Leanne Zabala, Jeff Stone, Marylyn M. McEwen, Elizabeth Calhoun, Nancy K. Sweitzer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Scopus citations


Importance: Racial bias is associated with the allocation of advanced heart failure therapies, heart transplants, and ventricular assist devices. It is unknown whether gender and racial biases are associated with the allocation of advanced therapies among women. Objective: To determine whether the intersection of patient gender and race is associated with the decision-making of clinicians during the allocation of advanced heart failure therapies. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this qualitative study, 46 US clinicians attending a conference for an international heart transplant organization in April 2019 were interviewed on the allocation of advanced heart failure therapies. Participants were randomized to examine clinical vignettes that varied 1:1 by patient race (African American to white) and 20:3 by gender (women to men) to purposefully target vignettes of women patients to compare with a prior study of vignettes of men patients. Participants were interviewed about their decision-making process using the think-aloud technique and provided supplemental surveys. Interviews were analyzed using grounded theory methodology, and surveys were analyzed with Wilcoxon tests. Exposure: Randomization to clinical vignettes. Main Outcomes and Measures: Thematic differences in allocation of advanced therapies by patient race and gender. Results: Among 46 participants (24 [52%] women, 20 [43%] racial minority), participants were randomized to the vignette of a white woman (20 participants [43%]), an African American woman (20 participants [43%]), a white man (3 participants [7%]), and an African American man (3 participants [7%]). Allocation differences centered on 5 themes. First, clinicians critiqued the appearance of the women more harshly than the men as part of their overall impressions. Second, the African American man was perceived as experiencing more severe illness than individuals from other racial and gender groups. Third, there was more concern regarding appropriateness of prior care of the African American woman compared with the white woman. Fourth, there were greater concerns about adequacy of social support for the women than for the men. Children were perceived as liabilities for women, particularly the African American woman. Family dynamics and finances were perceived to be greater concerns for the African American woman than for individuals in the other vignettes; spouses were deemed inadequate support for women. Last, participants recommended ventricular assist devices over transplantation for all racial and gender groups. Surveys revealed no statistically significant differences in allocation recommendations for African American and white women patients. Conclusions and Relevance: This national study of health care professionals randomized to clinical vignettes that varied only by gender and race found evidence of gender and race bias in the decision-making process for offering advanced therapies for heart failure, particularly for African American women patients, who were judged more harshly by appearance and adequacy of social support. There was no associated between patient gender and race and final recommendations for allocation of advanced therapies. However, it is possible that bias may contribute to delayed allocation and ultimately inequity in the allocation of advanced therapies in a clinical setting.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e2011044
JournalJAMA Network Open
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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