Association of cardiometabolic risk factors and prevalent cardiovascular events

Dan C. Malone, Denise M. Boudreau, Greg A. Nichols, Marsha A. Raebel, Paul A. Fishman, Adrianne C. Feldstein, Rami H. Ben-Joseph, Lynn J. Okamoto, Audra N. Boscoe, David J. Magid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Background: Although cardiovascular disease causes substantial morbidity and mortality, how individual and groups of risk factors contribute to cardiovascular outcomes is incompletely understood. This study evaluated cardiometabolic risk factors and their relationship to prevalent diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke. Methods: We used retrospective data from 3 integrated health-care systems that systematically collect and store detailed patient-level data. Adult enrollees were eligible for inclusion if they had all of the following clinical measurements: weight, height, blood pressure, high density lipoproteins, triglycerides, and fasting blood glucose or evidence of diabetes from July 1, 2003, to June 30, 2005. We used National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines to determine qualifying levels for cardiometabolic risk factors. Results: A total of 170,648 persons met the inclusion/exclusion criteria; 11,757 had no qualifying risk factors, 25,684 had 1, 38,176 had 2, and 95,031 had 3 or more risk factors. Compared to those without risk factors, persons with any 1 risk factor were 2.21 (95 confidence interval [CI], 1.78-2.74) times more likely to have had a diagnosis of AMI or stroke. The risk increased to 2.79 (95 CI, 2.26-3.42) for persons with 2, 3.45 (95 CI, 2.80-4.24) for persons with 3, 4.35 (95 CI, 3.54-5.35) for persons with 4, and 5.73 (95 CI, 4.65-7.07) for persons with 5 risk factors. The highest risk was conferred by having the combination of risk factors of diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, with or without weight risk. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a direct association between an increasing number of cardiometabolic risk factors and prevalent diagnosis of AMI and stroke. The combination of risk factors conferring the highest risk was diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)585-593
Number of pages9
JournalMetabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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