Assessment of fluoride contamination in groundwater of district Mardan in Pakistan

Zia Ur Rahman, Bushra Khan, Hizbullah Khan, Mark L. Brusseau, Iqbal Ahmad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


If groundwater contains elevated levels of the fluoride ion (F), its consumption for drinking purposes is a major F exposure pathway for humans. Groundwater samples (n=100) were collected from 25 villages of District Mardan of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province, Pakistan, and analyzed for anions including F, chloride (Cl), bromide (Br), phosphate (PO43–), and sulfate (SO42–) with ion chromatography. The range of the F concentrations in the groundwater samples was 0.05–10.8 mg/L. The measured concentrations were within the permissible limits of National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) of Pakistan for drinking water in 92% of the samples. Groundwater samples of three villages exhibited F concentrations greater than the permissible level of 1.5 mg/L. The F concentration showed a positive correlation with electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), and the concentrations of Br, PO43–, and SO42–. To safeguard public health, this study suggests the need for further research in the area for possible sources of F contamination and mitigation measures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)445-454
Number of pages10
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 1 2017


  • Contamination
  • Fluorosis
  • Health risks
  • Monitoring
  • NEQS
  • Water quality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • General Chemistry
  • General Dentistry
  • Toxicology
  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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