Arabidopsis intragenomic conserved noncoding sequence

Brian C. Thomas, Lakshmi Rapaka, Eric Lyons, Brent Pedersen, Michael Freeling

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations


After the most recent tetraploidy in the Arabidopsis lineage, most gene pairs lost one, but not both, of their duplicates. We manually inspected the 3,179 retained gene pairs and their surrounding gene space still present in the genome using a custom-made viewer application. The display of these pairs allowed us to define intragenic conserved noncoding sequences (CNSs), identify exon annotation errors, and discover potentially new genes. Using a strict algorithm to sort high-scoring pair sequences from the bl2seq data, we created a database of 14,944 intragenomic Arabidopsis CNSs. The mean CNS length is 31 bp, ranging from 15 to 285 bp. There are ≈1.7 CNSs associated with a typical gene, and Arabidopsis CNSs are found in all areas around exons, most frequently in the 5′ upstream region. Gene ontology classifications related to transcription, regulation, or "response to..." external or endogenous stimuli, especially hormones, tend to be significantly overrepresented among genes containing a large number of CNSs, whereas protein localization, transport, and metabolism are common among genes with no CNSs. There is a 1.5% overlap between these CNSs and the 218,982 putative RNAs in the Arabidopsis Small RNA Project database, allowing for two mismatches. These CNSs provide a unique set of noncoding sequences enriched for function. CMS function is implied by evolutionary conservation and independently supported because CNS-richness predicts regulatory gene ontology categories.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3348-3353
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number9
StatePublished - Feb 27 2007


  • Gene regulation
  • Small RNA
  • Transcription factor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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