Apophis Planetary Defense Campaign

Vishnu Reddy, Michael S. Kelley, Jessie Dotson, Davide Farnocchia, Nicolas Erasmus, David Polishook, Joseph Masiero, Lance A.M. Benner, James Bauer, Miguel R. Alarcon, David Balam, Daniel Bamberger, David Bell, Fabrizio Barnardi, Terry H. Bressi, Marina Brozovic, Melissa J. Brucker, Luca Buzzi, Juan Cano, David CantilloRamona Cennamo, Serge Chastel, Omarov Chingis, Young Jun Choi, Eric Christensen, Larry Denneau, Marek Dróżdż, Leonid Elenin, Orhan Erece, Laura Faggioli, Carmelo Falco, Dmitry Glamazda, Filippo Graziani, Aren N. Heinze, Matthew J. Holman, Alexander Ivanov, Cristovao Jacques, Petro Janse van Rensburg, Galina Kaiser, Krzysztof Kamiński, Monika K. Kamińska, Murat Kaplan, Dong Heun Kim, Myung Jin Kim, Csaba Kiss, Tatiana Kokina, Eduard Kuznetsov, Jeffrey A. Larsen, Hee Jae Lee, Robert C. Lees, Julia de León, Javier Licandro, Amy Mainzer, Anna Marciniak, Michael Marsset, Ron A. Mastaler, Donovan L. Mathias, Robert S. McMillan, Hissa Medeiros, Marco Micheli, Artem Mokhnatkin, Hong Kyu Moon, David Morate, Shantanu P. Naidu, Alessandro Nastasi, Artem Novichonok, Waldemar Ogłoza, András Pál, Fabricio Pérez-Toledo, Alexander Perminov, Elisabeta Petrescu, Marcel Popescu, Mike T. Read, Daniel E. Reichart, Inna Reva, Dong Goo Roh, Clemens Rumpf, Akash Satpathy, Sergei Schmalz, James V. Scotti, Aleksander Serebryanskiy, Miquel Serra-Ricart, Eda Sonbas, Robert Szakáts, Patrick A. Taylor, John L. Tonry, Andrew F. Tubbiolo, Peter Veres, Richard Wainscoat, Elizabeth Warner, Henry J. Weiland, Guy Wells, Robert Weryk, Lorien F. Wheeler, Yulia Wiebe, Hong Suh Yim, Michał Żejmo, Anastasiya Zhornichenko, Stanisław Zoła, Patrick Michel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


We describe results of a planetary defense exercise conducted during the close approach to Earth by the near-Earth asteroid (99942) Apophis during 2020 December–2021 March. The planetary defense community has been conducting observational campaigns since 2017 to test the operational readiness of the global planetary defense capabilities. These community-led global exercises were carried out with the support of NASA’s Planetary Defense Coordination Office and the International Asteroid Warning Network. The Apophis campaign is the third in our series of planetary defense exercises. The goal of this campaign was to recover, track, and characterize Apophis as a potential impactor to exercise the planetary defense system including observations, hypothetical risk assessment and risk prediction, and hazard communication. Based on the campaign results, we present lessons learned about our ability to observe and model a potential impactor. Data products derived from astrometric observations were available for inclusion in our risk assessment model almost immediately, allowing real-time updates to the impact probability calculation and possible impact locations. An early NEOWISE diameter measurement provided a significant improvement in the uncertainty on the range of hypothetical impact outcomes. The availability of different characterization methods such as photometry, spectroscopy, and radar provided robustness to our ability to assess the potential impact risk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number123
JournalPlanetary Science Journal
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Geophysics
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Space and Planetary Science


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