Anxiety reduction after pre-procedure meetings in patients with CHD

Preston J. Boyer, Joshua A. Yell, Jennifer G. Andrews, Michael D. Seckeler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


AbstractBackground: Cardiac catheterisations for CHD produce anxiety for patients and families. Current strategies to mitigate anxiety and explain complex anatomy include pre-procedure meetings and educational tools (cardiac diagrams, echocardiograms, imaging, and angiography). More recently, three-dimensionally printed patient-specific models can be added to the armamentarium. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of pre-procedure meetings and of different educational tools to reduce patient and parent anxiety before a catheterisation.Methods: Prospective study of patients ≥18 and parents of patients <18 scheduled for clinically indicated catheterisations. Patients completed online surveys before and after meeting with the interventional cardiologist, who was blinded to study participation. Both the pre- and post-meeting surveys measured anxiety using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. In addition, the post-meeting survey evaluated the subjective value (from 1 to 4) of individual educational tools: physician discussion, cardiac diagrams, echocardiograms, prior imaging, angiograms and three-dimensionally printed cardiac models. Data were compared using paired t-tests.Results: Twenty-three patients consented to participate, 16 had complete data for evaluation. Mean State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores were abnormally elevated at baseline and decreased into the normal range after the pre-procedure meeting (39.8 versus 31, p = 0.008). Physician discussion, angiograms, and three-dimensional models were reported to be most effective at increasing understanding and reducing anxiety.Conclusion: In this pilot study, we have found that pre-catheterisation meetings produce a measurable decrease in patient and family anxiety before a procedure. Discussions of the procedure, angiograms, and three-dimensionally printed cardiac models were the most effective educational tools.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)991-994
Number of pages4
JournalCardiology in the Young
Issue number7
StatePublished - 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • CHD
  • anxiety
  • cardiac catheterisation
  • education of patients
  • three-dimensional printing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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