Antiretroviral Laboratory Monitoring and Implications for HIV Clinical Care in the Era of COVID-19 and beyond

Lawrence D. York, Julia M. Fisher, Lakshmeeramya Malladi, Jessica A. August, Kristen E. Ellis, Jose L. Marquez, Ashwini Kaveti, Marine Khachatryan, Marissa K. Paz, Matthew D. Adams, Edward J. Bedrick, Lori E. Fantry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In the era of COVID-19, providers are delaying laboratory testing in people with HIV (PWH). The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical significance of renal, liver, and lipid testing. We reviewed the charts of 261 PWH who initiated care at an academic HIV clinic between January 1, 2016 and December 21, 2018. Analysis included one-sided binomial exact tests and multiple linear, Poisson, and Beta regression models. The most common abnormality was a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 mL/min (10%). Age <40 years [estimated relative rate (rr) 0.017, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.207 to 0.494], cobicistat (rr 0.284, 95% CI 0.128 to 0.63), and tenofovir alafenamide (rr 0.295 95% CI 0.151 to 0.573) were associated with a decreased risk of GFR <60 mL/min. An increased AST and ALT ≥2 × upper limit of normal (ULN) was found in 5% and 3%, respectively. Hepatitis C and use of darunavir and lopinavir were associated with increased AST or ALT. When a GFR was <60 mL/min or an AST or ALT was ≥2 × ULN, no action was taken in 53% of cases. In 18% of cases the only intervention was repeat testing. The most common interventions after lipid results were calculation of a 10-year cardiovascular risk score (31%) and addition of a statin (18%). Taking action after lipid results was strongly associated with age ≥40 (rr 7.37, 95% CI 3.0 to 18.3). Young PWH without hepatitis C rarely have renal, liver, or lipid test results that alter clinical care. Decreased testing should be considered.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number263
Pages (from-to)297-303
Number of pages7
JournalAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2021


  • HIV
  • antiretroviral therapy
  • lipids
  • liver
  • renal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases


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