Antenatal maternal low protein diet: ACE-2 in the mouse lung and sexually dimorphic programming of hypertension

Ravi Goyal, Jonathan Van-Wickle, Dipali Goyal, Lawrence D. Longo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Elevated blood pressure is an important global health problem, and in-utero under-nutrition may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of hypertension. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that antenatal maternal low protein diet (MLPD) leads to sexually dimorphic developmental programming of the components of the pulmonary renin-angiotensin system. This may be important in the antenatal MLPD-associated development of hypertension. In pregnant mice, we administered normal (control) and isocaloric 50 % protein restricted diet, commencing one week before mating and continuing until delivery of the pups. From the 18th to 24th week postnatal, we measured blood pressure in the offspring by use of a non-invasive tail-cuff method. In the same mice, we examined the mRNA and protein expression of the key components of the pulmonary renin-angiotensin system. Also, we examined microRNA complementary to angiotensin converting enzymes (ACE) 2 in the offspring lungs. Our results demonstrate that as a consequence of antenatal MLPD: 1) pup birthweight was significantly reduced in both sexes. 2) female offspring developed hypertension, but males did not. 3) In female offspring, ACE-2 protein expression was significantly reduced without any change in the mRNA levels. 4) miRNA 429, which has a binding site on ACE-2 - 3′ UTR was significantly upregulated in the female antenatal MLPD offspring. 5) In males, ACE-2 mRNA and protein expression were unaltered. We conclude that in the mouse, antenatal MLPD-induced reduction of ACE-2 in the female offspring lung may be an important mechanisms in sexually dimorphic programming of hypertension.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2
JournalBMC Physiology
Issue number1
StatePublished - May 14 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Angiotensin converting enzyme
  • Barker hypothesis
  • DOHaD
  • Developmental origins
  • Epigenetics
  • Fetal programming
  • MicroRNA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)


Dive into the research topics of 'Antenatal maternal low protein diet: ACE-2 in the mouse lung and sexually dimorphic programming of hypertension'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this