Anomalous Cosmic Rays and Heliospheric Energetic Particles

J. Giacalone, H. Fahr, H. Fichtner, V. Florinski, B. Heber, M. E. Hill, J. Kóta, R. A. Leske, M. S. Potgieter, J. S. Rankin

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


We present a review of Anomalous Cosmic Rays (ACRs), including the history of their discovery and recent insights into their acceleration and transport in the heliosphere. We focus on a few selected topics including a discussion of mechanisms of their acceleration, escape from the heliosphere, their effects on the dynamics of the heliosheath, transport in the inner heliosphere, and their solar cycle dependence. A discussion concerning their name is also presented towards the end of the review. We note that much is known about ACRs and perhaps the term Anomalous Cosmic Ray is not particularly descriptive to a non specialist. We suggest that the more-general term: “Heliospheric Energetic Particles”, which is more descriptive, for which ACRs and other energetic particle species of heliospheric origin are subsets, might be more appropriate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number22
JournalSpace Science Reviews
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jun 2022


  • Cosmic ray transport
  • Cosmic rays
  • Heliosphere
  • Particle acceleration
  • Pickup ions
  • Shocks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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