Analytical analysis of adaptive defect detection in amplitude and phase structures using photorefractive four-wave mixing

George Nehmetallah, John Donoghue, Partha Banerjee, Jed Khoury, Michiharu Yamamoto, Nasser Peyghambarian

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


In this work, brief theoretical modeling, analysis, and novel numerical verification of a photorefractive polymer based four wave mixing (FWM) setup for defect detection has been developed. The numerical simulation helps to validate our earlier experimental results to perform defect detection in periodic amplitude and phase objects using FWM. Specifically, we develop the theory behind the detection of isolated defects, and random defects in amplitude, and phase periodic patterns. In accordance with the developed theory, the results show that this technique successfully detects the slightest defects through band-pass intensity filtering and requires minimal additional post image processing contrast enhancement. This optical defect detection technique can be applied to the detection of production line defects, e.g., scratch enhancement, defect cluster enhancement, and periodic pattern dislocation enhancement. This technique is very useful in quality control systems, production line defect inspection, and computer vision.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationOptical Pattern Recognition XXVII
EditorsDavid Casasent, Mohammad S. Alam
ISBN (Electronic)9781510600867
StatePublished - 2016
EventOptical Pattern Recognition XXVII - Baltimore, United States
Duration: Apr 20 2016Apr 21 2016

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X


OtherOptical Pattern Recognition XXVII
Country/TerritoryUnited States


  • Pattern recognition
  • defect detection
  • four-wave mixing
  • photorefractive material

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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