An improved nonlinear ultrasonic technique for detecting and monitoring impact induced damage in composite plates

H. Alnuaimi, U. Amjad, S. Park, P. Russo, V. Lopresto, T. Kundu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


An improved technique for sensing damage initiation and progression in thermoplastic resin composite plate specimens is presented in this study. The composite plate specimens are investigated by using a nonlinear ultrasonic (NLU) technique called Sideband Peak Count Index or SPC-I. The technique presented in this paper is an improvement from the previous SPC-I technique. This improved technique provides more reliable and consistent results and can monitor the damage progression over a wide range. In this paper the narrow band SPC-I technique is introduced to replace the conventional wide band SPC-I technique. The method implemented here is improved in three ways. First and foremost the narrow band SPC-I technique is introduced. Secondly, the non-permanently adhered gel coupled Lead-Zirconate-Titanate (PZT) transducers are used to reduce inconsistency in transducer adhesion and manufacturing. Lastly, higher sampling rate equipment is used for better signal resolution and peak counting. The experiments are performed on 4 sets of composite plate specimens fabricated using two composite fiber materials (Glass and Basalt) that have increasing levels of damage. The composite plate specimens were damaged by a falling weight impact machine with increasing impact energy (0 J, 10 J, 20 J and 30 J). The composite plate specimens were examined by propagating a narrow band chirp signal through the specimens using gel coupled transducers in a transmission mode setup. The received signals were recorded and analyzed using the NLU SPC-I technique. The modified SPC-I technique proposed in this paper can reliably and consistently detect both initiation and progression of damage in the composite plate specimens.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number106620
StatePublished - Feb 2022


  • Composite
  • Damage monitoring
  • Nonlinear Ultrasonic
  • SPC-Index
  • Structural Health Monitoring

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics


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