An Epsilon-Near-Zero (ENZ) Based, Ultra-Wide Bandwidth Terahertz Single-Polarization Single-Mode Photonic Crystal Fiber

Tianyu Yang, Can Ding, Richard W. Ziolkowski, Y. Jay Guo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


A novel terahertz (THz) photonic crystal fiber (PCF) that yields single-polarization single-mode (SPSM) propagation over an ultra-wide bandwidth is designed and analyzed. The PCF is based upon a triangle-based lattice of air holes in a high resistivity silicon substrate with three selectively-filled rectangular slots introduced into the core area. Four air holes surrounding the core region are chosen to be loaded with an epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) material. The configuration, and the large loss of the ENZ material establish a large loss difference (LD) between the two fundamental propagating polarization modes, and any higher order modes. When the central slot of the three in the core is filled with a gain material, and the adjacent two slots are air-filled, the LD values between the one desired propagating mode, and all other modes are significantly enhanced. Consequently, essentially only the desired mode will exist in the PCF after a short propagation distance resulting in the SPSM behavior. The optimized design provides large LD values, greater than 9.4 dB/cm, over a SPSM spectrum of 0.64 THz (from 1.10 to 1.74 THz), which, to the best of our knowledge, is the widest SPSM bandwidth achieved to date in the THz regime. The unwanted modes are 30 dB smaller than the wanted mode after a 3.2 cm length of the PCF. This outcome is highly desired for polarization sensitive THz communications, and sensor systems that rely on waveguiding structures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number9187949
Pages (from-to)223-232
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Lightwave Technology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Fiber characteristic
  • single-polarization singel-mode
  • terahertz

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics


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