An empirical study of Java bytecode programs

Christian Collberg, Ginger Myles, Michael Stepp

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

53 Scopus citations


We present a study of the static structure of real Java bytecode programs. A total of 1132 Java jar-files were collected from the Internet and analyzed. In addition to simple counts (number of methods per class, number of bytecode instructions per method, etc.), structural metrics such as the complexity of control-flow and inheritance graphs were computed. We believe this study will be valuable In the design of future programming languages and virtual machine instruction sets, as well as In the efficient implementation of compilers and other language processors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)581-641
Number of pages61
JournalSoftware - Practice and Experience
Issue number6
StatePublished - May 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software


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