All-Glass 100 mm Diameter Visible Metalens for Imaging the Cosmos

Joon Suh Park, Soon Wei Daniel Lim, Arman Amirzhan, Hyukmo Kang, Karlene Karrfalt, Daewook Kim, Joel Leger, Augustine Urbas, Marcus Ossiander, Zhaoyi Li, Federico Capasso

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Metasurfaces, optics made from subwavelength-scale nanostructures, have been limited to millimeter-sizes by the scaling challenge of producing vast numbers of precisely engineered elements over a large area. In this study, we demonstrate an all-glass 100 mm diameter metasurface lens (metalens) comprising 18.7 billion nanostructures that operates in the visible spectrum with a fast f-number (f/1.5, NA = 0.32) using deep-ultraviolet (DUV) projection lithography. Our work overcomes the exposure area constraints of lithography tools and demonstrates that large metasurfaces are commercially feasible. Additionally, we investigate the impact of various fabrication errors on the imaging quality of the metalens, several of which are specific to such large area metasurfaces. We demonstrate direct astronomical imaging of the Sun, the Moon, and emission nebulae at visible wavelengths and validate the robustness of such metasurfaces under extreme environmental thermal swings for space applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3187-3198
Number of pages12
JournalACS Nano
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jan 30 2024


  • astrophotography
  • DUV lithography
  • large-area
  • monolithic
  • visible metalens

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • General Engineering
  • General Physics and Astronomy


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