Aggregates in the Temporary Query Language TQuel

Richard T. Snodgrass, Santiago Gomez, L. Edwin McKenzie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Scopus citations


This paper defines new constructs to support aggregation in the temporal query language TQuel and presents their formal semantics in the tuple relational calculus. A formal semantics for Quel aggregates is defined in the process. Multiple aggregates; aggregates appearing in the where, when, and valid clauses; nested aggregation; and instantaneous, cumulative, moving window, and unique variants are supported. These aggregates provide a rich set of statistical functions that range over time, while requiring minimal additions to TQuel and its semantics. We show how the aggregates may be supported in an historical algebra, both in a batch and in an incremental fashion, demonstrating that implementation is straightforward and efficient.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)826-842
Number of pages17
JournalIEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 1993


  • Aggregate
  • Quel
  • TQuel
  • aggregate
  • correlation query
  • moving window
  • query language
  • temporal database
  • temporal partitioning
  • tuple calculus
  • valid time

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Information Systems
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics


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