Advances in viral oncolytics for treatment of multiple myeloma–a focused review

Ayesha Sarwar, Laila Hashim, Muhammad Salman Faisal, Mobeen Zaka Haider, Zahoor Ahmed, Tehniat Faraz Ahmed, Moazzam Shahzad, Iqraa Ansar, Sundas Ali, Muhammad Muaaz Aslam, Faiz Anwer

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Introduction: Oncolytic viruses are genetically engineered viruses that target myeloma-affected cells by detecting specific cell surface receptors (CD46, CD138), causing cell death by activating the signaling pathway to induce apoptosis or by immune-mediated cellular destruction. Areas covered: This article summarizes oncolytic virotherapy advancements such as the therapeutic use of viruses by targeting cell surface proteins of myeloma cells as well as the carriers to deliver viruses to the target tissues safely. The major classes of viruses that have been studied for this include measles, myxoma, adenovirus, reovirus, vaccinia, vesicular-stomatitis virus, coxsackie, and others. The measles virus acts as oncolytic viral therapy by binding to the CD46 receptors on the myeloma cells to utilize its surface H protein. These H-protein and CD46 interactions lead to cellular syncytia formation resulting in cellular apoptosis. Vesicular-stomatitis virus acts by downregulation of anti-apoptotic factors (Mcl-2, BCL-2). Based upon the published literature searches till December 2020, we have summarized the data supporting the advances in viral oncolytic for the treatment of MM. Expert opinion: Oncolytic virotherapy is an experimental approach in multiple myeloma (MM); many issues need to be addressed for safe viral delivery to the target tissue.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1071-1083
Number of pages13
JournalExpert Review of Hematology
Volume14
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • adenovirus
  • bovine virus
  • coxsackie virus
  • measles virus
  • mengo virus
  • Multiple myeloma
  • myxoma virus
  • oncolytic virotherapy
  • reovirus
  • vaccinia virus
  • vesicular-stomatitis virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology

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