Advanced anaerobic wastewater treatment in the near future

G. Lettinga, J. Field, J. Van Lier, G. Zeeman, L. W. Hulshoff Pol

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

162 Scopus citations


New insights into the anaerobic degradation of very different categories of compounds, and into process and reactor technology will lead to very promising new generations of anaerobic treatment system, such as 'Expanded Granular Sludge Bed' (EGSB) and 'Staged Multi-Phase Anaerobic' (MPSA) reactor systems. These concepts will provide a higher efficiency at higher loading rates, are applicable for extreme environmental conditions (e.g. low and high temperatures) and to inhibitory compounds. Moreover, by integrating the anaerobic process with other biological methods (sulphate reduction, micro-aerophilic organisms) and with physical-chemical methods, a complete treatment of the wastewater can be accomplished at very low costs, while at the same time valuable components can be recovered for reuse.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)5-12
Number of pages8
JournalWater Science and Technology
Issue number10
StatePublished - 1997
EventProceedings of the 1996 IAWQ International Conference on Advanced Wastewater Treatment: Nutrient Removal and Anaerobic Processes, AQUATECH'96 - Amsterdam, Neth
Duration: Sep 23 1996Sep 25 1996


  • Anaerobic
  • Granulation
  • High rate systems
  • Integrated systems
  • Staging
  • Sustainable

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Water Science and Technology


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