We recently reported that the β1 integrin antagonist, referred to as HYD1, induces necrotic cell death in myeloma cell lines as a single agent using in vitro and in vivo models. In this article, we sought to delineate the determinants of sensitivity and resistance toward HYD1-induced cell death. To this end, we developed an HYD1 isogenic resistant myeloma cell line by chronically exposing H929 myeloma cells to increasing concentrations of HYD1. Our data indicate that the acquisition of resistance toward HYD1 correlates with reduced levels of the cleaved α4 integrin subunit. Consistent with reduced VLA-4 (α4β1) expression, the resistant variant showed ablated functional binding to fibronectin, VCAM-1, and the bone marrow stroma cell line HS-5. The reduction in binding of the resistant cell line to HS-5 cells translated to a compromised cell adhesion-mediated drug resistant phenotype as shown by increased sensitivity to melphalan- and bortezomib-induced cell death in the bone marrow stroma coculture model of drug resistance. Importantly, we show that HYD1 is more potent in relapsed myeloma specimens than newly diagnosed patients, a finding that correlated with α4 integrin expression. Collectively, these data indicate that this novel D-amino acid peptide may represent a good candidate for pursuing clinical trials in relapsed myeloma and in particular patients with high levels of α4 integrin. Moreover, our data provide further rationale for continued preclinical development of HYD1 and analogues of HYD1 for the treatment of multiple myeloma and potentially other tumors that home and/or metastasize to the bone.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research