A universal method to produce low-work function electrodes for organic electronics

Yinhua Zhou, Canek Fuentes-Hernandez, Jaewon Shim, Jens Meyer, Anthony J. Giordano, Hong Li, Paul Winget, Theodoros Papadopoulos, Hyeunseok Cheun, Jungbae Kim, Mathieu Fenoll, Amir Dindar, Wojciech Haske, Ehsan Najafabadi, Talha M. Khan, Hossein Sojoudi, Stephen Barlow, Samuel Graham, Jean Luc Brédas, Seth R. MarderAntoine Kahn, Bernard Kippelen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1876 Scopus citations


Organic and printed electronics technologies require conductors with a work function that is sufficiently low to facilitate the transport of electrons in and out of various optoelectronic devices. We show that surface modifiers based on polymers containing simple aliphatic amine groups substantially reduce the work function of conductors including metals, transparent conductive metal oxides, conducting polymers, and graphene. The reduction arises from physisorption of the neutral polymer, which turns the modified conductors into efficient electron-selective electrodes in organic optoelectronic devices. These polymer surface modifiers are processed in air from solution, providing an appealing alternative to chemically reactive low-work function metals. Their use can pave the way to simplified manufacturing of low-cost and large-area organic electronic technologies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)327-332
Number of pages6
Issue number6079
StatePublished - Apr 20 2012
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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