A universal kinematic scaling relation and galaxy bulges

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


We retrace the development of a kinematic scaling relation, referred to as the Fundamental Manifold (FM), that addresses shortcomings of the commonly used fundamental plane in certain contexts. We then examine whether bulges separately satisfy the FM relation and discuss what the success or failure of such a match implies for the nature of classical- and pseudo-bulges. On the basis of this preliminary analysis we suggest that while classical bulges appear to be independent, dynamically complete subsystems within their host galaxies that satisfy the scaling relation, pseudobulges do not satisfy the scaling relation and so probably consist of an unrepresentative subset of disc stars. This is currently not a unique explanation of the results, but the use of kinematic scaling relations with larger samples, done in a more systematic manner, could lead to a more definitive resolution on the nature of bulges.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationGalactic Bulges
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages11
ISBN (Electronic)9783319193786
ISBN (Print)9783319193779
StatePublished - Oct 25 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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