A terahertz (THz) single-polarization-single-mode (SPSM) photonic crystal fiber (PCF)

Tianyu Yang, Can Ding, Richard W. Ziolkowski, Y. Jay Guo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


This paper presents a novel approach to attain a single-polarization-single-mode (SPSM) photonic crystal fiber (PCF) in the terahertz (THz) regime. An initial circular hole PCF design is modified by introducing asymmetry in the first ring of six air holes in the cladding, i.e., epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) material is introduced into only four of those air holes and the other two remain air-filled but have different diameters. The resulting fundamental X-polarized (XP) and Y-polarized (YP) modes have distinctly different electric field distributions. The asymmetry is arranged so that the YP mode has a much larger amount of the field distributed in the ENZ material than the XP mode. Since the ENZ material is very lossy, the YP mode suffers a much higher loss than the XP mode. Consequently, after a short propagation distance, the loss difference (LD) between the XP and YP modes will be large enough that only the XP mode still realistically exists in the PCF. To further enhance the outcome, gain material is introduced into the core area to increase the LDs between the wanted XP mode and any unwanted higher order (HO) modes, as well as to compensate for the XP mode loss without affecting the LD between the XP and YP modes. The optimized PCF exhibits LDs between the desired XP mode and all other modes greater than 8.0 dB/cm across a wide frequency range of 0.312 THz. Consequently, the reported PCF only needs a length of 2.5 cm to attain an SPSM result, with the unwanted modes being more than 20 dB smaller than the wanted mode over the entire operational band.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2442
Issue number15
StatePublished - Aug 1 2019


  • Epsilon-near-zero (ENZ)
  • Fiber characterization
  • Photonic crystal fiber (PCF)
  • Singlepolarization- single-mode (SPSM)
  • Terahertz (THz)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science


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