A systematic search for molecular outflows toward candidate low-luminosity protostars and very low luminosity objects

Kamber R. Schwarz, Yancy L. Shirley, Michael M. Dunham

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12 Scopus citations


We present a systematic single-dish search for molecular outflows toward a sample of nine candidate low-luminosity protostars and 30 candidate very low luminosity objects (VeLLOs; L int ≤ 0.1 L ). The sources are identified using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope cataloged by Dunham etal. toward nearby (D < 400 pc) star-forming regions. Each object was observed in 12CO and 13CO J = 2 → 1 simultaneously using the sideband separating ALMA Band-6 prototype receiver on the Heinrich Hertz Telescope at 30″ resolution. Using five-point grid maps, we identify five new potential outflow candidates and make on-the-fly maps of the regions surrounding sources in the dense cores B59, L1148, L1228, and L1165. Of these new outflow candidates, only the map of B59 shows a candidate blue outflow lobe associated with a source in our survey. We also present larger and more sensitive maps of the previously detected L673-7 and the L1251-A-IRS4 outflows and analyze their properties in comparison to other outflows from VeLLOs. The accretion luminosities derived from the outflow properties of the VeLLOs with detected CO outflows are higher than the observed internal luminosity of the protostars, indicating that these sources likely had higher accretion rates in the past. The known L1251-A-IRS3 outflow is detected but not re-mapped. We do not detect clear, unconfused signatures of red and blue molecular wings toward the other 31 sources in the survey indicating that large-scale, distinct outflows are rare toward this sample of candidate protostars. Several potential outflows are confused with the kinematic structure in the surrounding core and cloud. Interferometric imaging is needed to disentangle large-scale molecular cloud kinematics from these potentially weak protostellar outflows.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number115
JournalAstronomical Journal
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2012


  • ISM: jets and outflows
  • brown dwarfs
  • stars: formation
  • stars: low-mass

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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