A systematic review of community pharmacy initiatives to improve treatment of depression and pain: Focus on types of programs and patient-reported outcomes: Community Pharmacy Initiatives on Depression and Pain: Systematic Review

Jordan F. Karp, Joelle Kincman, Michael Lightfoot, Jill E. Foust, Robert Maher, Marie Anne Gebara

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Introduction: Depression and pain are common, disabling, mutually exacerbating conditions. Many patients living with these conditions present to community pharmacies on a regular schedule to purchase both prescribed and over-the-counter medications. Community-pharmacy based programs have been developed to improve depression and pain outcomes. Methods: The PRISMA guidelines were utilized to answer the following question: In patients with depression and/or pain, what is the effect of the existing community pharmacy programs on depression and/or pain outcomes. Queried databases included Pubmed, EMBASE, and PsychINFO. DistillerSR was used to organize the screening, abstraction, and review of data. All potential articles were evaluated by two authors, and conflicts were discussed to achieve resolution. In addition to primary outcomes, sources of potential bias and quality indicators were abstracted for every article. Results: Three thousand nine hundred and twenty articles were reviewed, and 13 studies met eligibility criteria (n = 7 for depression; n = 6 for pain). Most studies demonstrated improvement in measures of depression or pain. However, compared to usual care or other control conditions, most of the depression and pain-specific interventions did not provide additional symptomatic benefit. The community pharmacy-based interventions were superior for other outcomes including medication adherence, reducing stigma, improvement in self-efficacy, and improvement in general management of disease. Conclusion: Community pharmacies may be uniquely positioned to deliver interventions that improve outcomes associated with successful depression and pain treatment outcomes. However, the benefits of published community pharmacy-based treatments for actually improving depression and pain severity has not yet been established. Innovative interventions and additional research may be needed to achieve clinical success for pharmacy interventions for depression and pain.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2569-2578
Number of pages10
JournalResearch in Social and Administrative Pharmacy
Volume18
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2022
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Community pharmacy
  • Depression
  • Pain

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacy
  • Pharmaceutical Science

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