A systematic review of clinical and laboratory findings of lead poisoning: lessons from case reports

Saeed Samarghandian, Farshad M. Shirazi, Farhad Saeedi, Babak Roshanravan, Ali Mohammad Pourbagher-Shahri, Emad Yeganeh Khorasani, Tahereh Farkhondeh, Jan Olav Aaseth, Mohammad Abdollahi, Omid Mehrpour

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Lead is one of the most toxic heavy metals in the environment. The present review aimed to highlight hazardous pollution sources, management, and review symptoms of lead poisonings in various parts of the world. The present study summarized the information available from case reports and case series studies from 2009 to March 2020 on the lead pollution sources and clinical symptoms. All are along with detoxification methods in infants, children, and adults. Our literature compilation includes results from 126 studies on lead poisoning. We found that traditional medication, occupational exposure, and substance abuse are as common as previously reported sources of lead exposure for children and adults. Ayurvedic medications and gunshot wounds have been identified as the most common source of exposure in the United States. However, opium and occupational exposure to the batteries were primarily seen in Iran and India. Furthermore, neurological, gastrointestinal, and hematological disorders were the most frequently occurring symptoms in lead-poisoned patients. As for therapeutic strategies, our findings confirm the safety and efficacy of chelating agents, even for infants. Our results suggest that treatment with chelating agents combined with the prevention of environmental exposure may be an excellent strategy to reduce the rate of lead poisoning. Besides, more clinical studies and long-term follow-ups are necessary to address all questions about lead poisoning management.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number115681
JournalToxicology and Applied Pharmacology
StatePublished - Oct 15 2021


  • Lead
  • chelating
  • poisoning
  • pollutant sources
  • systematic review
  • toxicities

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology


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