A Survey on Virtual Reality for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Design Considerations

Lal Bozgeyikli, Andrew Raij, Srinivas Katkoori, Redwan Alqasemi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

44 Scopus citations


In this article, state of the art on virtual reality (VR) for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with a focus on training/targeted intervention is discussed and reflected upon to explore areas for more future benefits. We present advantages of VR for individuals with ASD. We identify challenges and design issues for future training applications regarding individuals with ASD. We discuss and present design guidelines accumulated in the literature so far, mostly based on observations in user studies exploring the usefulness of VR as a training tool for individuals with ASD, with a systematic literature review. We present and apply a new taxonomy that classifies previous VR works on training individuals with ASD according to immersive and regular (non-immersive) VR systems and types of social, life and safety skills based on a systematic literature review. We explore the common design considerations of the previous VR studies for training individuals with ASD. Finally, based on the systematic literature reviews, we identify key gaps in the research on this topic and present future research considerations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)133-151
Number of pages19
JournalIEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Assistive technology
  • autism spectrum disorder
  • design considerations
  • targeted intervention
  • training
  • user centered design
  • virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Engineering(all)
  • Computer Science Applications


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