A study of a hybrid phase-pole macromodel for transient simulation of complex interconnects structures

Bing Zhong, Tao Hu, Dawei Fu, Steven L. Dvorak, John L. Prince

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


An overview of standard macromodeling techniques (i.e., employ poles but no phase shifts) for transient simulation of high-speed interconnects is first presented. Then, the limitations of these standard macromodeling techniques (e.g., high model order and slow convergence) are discussed. In order to overcome these limitations, generalized method of characteristics (MoC) techniques include the physical phenomenology of phase shift (time delay) in addition to the system poles, thereby making it possible to model single and coupled transmission lines using far fewer terms than when standard macromodeling techniques are employed. Since MoC techniques incorporate the time delay into the model, causality is also guaranteed. In this paper, the MoC idea is extended by developing a hybrid phase-pole macromodel (HPPM) for the modeling of more complex interconnects with embedded discontinuities. Unlike other generalized MoC techniques that have only been applied to single and coupled transmission lines, the HPPM macromodel can be applied to larger portions of the system that contain multiple cascaded transmission lines and discontinuities. The HPPM parameters can be extracted from either measured or simulated transient data. Comparisons between a standard macromodel and the HPPM show that the HPPM has significant advantages in terms of reduced macromodel orders.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1250-1261
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2005


  • Hybrid phase-pole macromodel
  • Interconnect
  • Macromodels
  • Method of characteristics
  • Transmission line

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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