A review of responsive MRI contrast agents: 2005-2014

Dina V. Hingorani, Adam S. Bernstein, Mark D. Pagel

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

161 Scopus citations


This review focuses on MRI contrast agents that are responsive to a change in a physiological biomarker. The response mechanisms are dependent on six physicochemical characteristics, including the accessibility of water to the agent, tumbling time, proton exchange rate, electron spin state, MR frequency or superparamagnetism of the agent. These characteristics can be affected by changes in concentrations or activities of enzymes, proteins, nucleic acids, metabolites, or metal ions, or changes in redox state, pH, temperature, or light. A total of 117 examples are presented, including ones that employ nuclei other than 1H, which attests to the creativity of multidisciplinary research efforts to develop responsive MRI contrast agents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)245-265
Number of pages21
JournalContrast Media and Molecular Imaging
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 1 2015


  • CEST agents
  • Hyperpolarized agents
  • MRI contrast agents
  • MRS agents
  • Responsive agents
  • T
  • T agents
  • agents

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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