A Review of Nitric Oxide for the Treatment of Glaucomatous Disease

Joah Aliancy, W. Daniel Stamer, Barbara Wirostko

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

68 Scopus citations


Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide, affecting 64.3 million people. An estimated 60.5 million people are affected by primary open angle glaucoma globally, and this will increase to 111.8 million by 2040. The definition of glaucoma has evolved greatly over time. Although multiple risk factors such as ischemia, inflammation, myopia, race, age and low ocular perfusion pressure may play a role, intraocular pressure (IOP) is still the main risk factor we can easily identify and modify. Currently, both medical and surgical interventions aim to reduce IOP. Effective IOP reduction controls and prevents the progression in many cases of glaucoma. Although this multifactorial disease’s true pathophysiology is difficult to elucidate, physiologic mediators including nitric oxide (NO) are being evaluated as novel ways to impact progression by both lowering IOP and improving optic nerve head perfusion. Latanoprostene bunod 0.024% is an emerging therapeutic agent that has shown promise in clinical trials. As a nitric oxide-donating prostaglandin F2-alpha receptor agonist, it has proven to effectively, and with good tolerability, reduce IOP in glaucoma and ocular hypertensive patients. Latanoprostene bunod capitalizes on NO’s ability to modulate the conventional aqueous humor outflow system, directly improving outflow through the trabecular meshwork, Schlemm’s canal and distal scleral vessels. Importantly, targeting the conventional outflow tissues with NO-donating drugs represents an opportunity to restore outflow function, which will most likely have a beneficial consequence of additional IOP-lowering effects with dampening of diurnal and other IOP fluctuations, the benefit of a healthy trabecular meshwork.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)221-232
Number of pages12
JournalOphthalmology and Therapy
Issue number2
StatePublished - Dec 1 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Clinical studies
  • Glaucoma
  • IOP
  • Nitric oxide
  • Nitric oxide synthetase
  • Trabecular meshwork

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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