Purpose: Up to 70% of survivors report cognitive symptoms after chemotherapy. We compared two cognitive rehabilitation programs to a control group in cancer survivors. Methods: Study population were adult cancer survivors with cognitive symptoms 6–60 months after adjuvant chemotherapy. Participants randomised to: Attention Process Training (APT), Compensatory Strategy Training (CST), or control group. Active interventions comprised 6–week, 2–h/week small group sessions. Assessments: pre- and post-intervention, 6- and 12-months later. Primary outcome was change in cognitive symptoms (FACT-COG-PCI subscale) between baseline and post-intervention. Secondary endpoints included objective neuropsychological performance, Functional Impact Assessment (FIA), patient-reported outcome measures, and associations. Analyses were on an intention-to-treat basis. Analysis of covariance mixed models were used for continuous outcomes. Results: Sixty-five participants were randomised (APT n = 21; CST n = 24; controls n = 20): 94% breast cancer, median age 54. Median time since chemotherapy 20.7 months. FACT-COG-PCI, clinical neuropsychological T-scores, and FIA improved in all groups over time, but no significant differences between arms. On mean neuropsychological T-scores 19/65 (29%) were impaired at baseline; post-intervention impairment controls 31.3%, CST 16.7%, APT 20.0%. On FIA at baseline, nine were impaired; this decreased to three post-intervention (one/group). FACT-COG-PCI was weakly associated with neuropsychological tests (rho = 0.24, p = 0.051) at baseline, and had no association with FIA. Neuropsychological total mean T-score was moderately positively associated with FIA (rho = 0.37, p = 0.003). Conclusion: There were no significant differences between intervention groups and controls using linear mixed models adjusted for baseline scores. Implications for Cancer Survivors: Cognitive symptoms and neuropsychological test scores improve over time.
- Cancer-related cognitive impairment
- Cognitive rehabilitation
- Cognitive symptoms
- Randomised control trial
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