A psychometric study of the Fear of Sleep Inventory-Short Form (FoSI-SF)

Kristi E. Pruiksma, Daniel J. Taylor, Camilo Ruggero, Adriel Boals, Joanne L. Davis, Christopher Cranston, Jason C. DeViva, Claudia Zayfert

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


Study Objectives: Fear of sleep may play a significant role in sleep disturbances in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This report describes a psychometric study of the Fear of Sleep Inventory (FoSI), which was developed to measure this construct. Methods: The psychometric properties of the FoSI were examined in a non-clinical sample of 292 college students (Study I) and in a clinical sample of 67 trauma-exposed adults experiencing chronic nightmares (Study II). Data on the 23 items of the FoSI were subjected to exploratory factor analyses (EFA) to identify items uniquely assessing fear of sleep. Next, reliability and validity of a 13-item version of the FoSI was examined in both samples. Results: A 13-item Short-Form version (FoSI-SF) was identified as having a clear 2-factor structure with high internal consistency in both the non-clinical (α = 0.76-0.94) and clinical (α = 0.88-0.91) samples. Both studies demonstrated good convergent validity with measures of PTSD (0.48-0.61) and insomnia (0.39-0.48) and discriminant validity with a measure of sleep hygiene (0.19-0.27). The total score on the FoSI-SF was significantly higher in the clinical sample (mean = 17.90, SD = 12.56) than in the non-clinical sample (mean = 4.80, SD = 7.72); t357 = 8.85 p < 0.001. Conclusions: Although all items are recommended for clinical purposes, the data support the use of the 13-item FoSI-SF for research purposes. Replication of the factor structure in clinical samples is needed. Results are discussed in terms of limitations of this study and directions for further research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)551-558
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Clinical Sleep Medicine
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Fear of sleep
  • Insomnia
  • Nightmares
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder
  • PTSD
  • Trauma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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